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Technical terms
Adze A carpenter's tool used for squa­ring logs, levelling horizontal surfaces, etc. It has a thin arched blade at right angles to the shaft, as compared with the axe which has the blade parallel to the shaft.
Adze
Bar We make use of the word bar to indi­cate any piece of timber that is placed along the height of a panel, in opposition to the term traverse (cross-bar) used for pieces of timber which are placed along the breadth of a panel.
Bevel Edge not cut at right angles on the faces, one side of the board forming with the adjacent sides angles greater or less respectively than a right angle.
Bevel (English)
Bevelled joint Joint uniting lengthwise two boards, the edges of which are bevelled to match with one another, thus forming a kind of inser­tion of an edge into an angular groove. Used now for wooden cofferdams.
Bevelled joint
Brace A member of a framed structure, cros­sing a space diagonally and able to resist tension or compression, imparting stiffness to the struc­ture.
Butt end End by which a piece of timber is joined with another.
Chamfer A bevelled edge, but the bevel not reaching the opposite side, both angles formed by the chamfer with the adjacent sides of the piece of timber being accordingly greater than a right angle (see Bevel).
Cleaver Kind of axe used to cleave hop poles, firewood, etc.
Cleaver
Cross-bar see Bar
Cross-grain Grain not parallel with the axis of a piece of timber. Cross-grain painting, cross-grain cutting, etc., means painting, cutting, etc., made in the direction contrary to the grain of the wood.
Double dovetail key A small piece of hard wood acting as a key, with two dovetailed sections, used for end-to-end butt joints and for mitre joints.
Double dovetail key
Double halved (scarf joint) Kind of mortise-and-tenon joint where each piece of timber is provided with two tenons and two mortises, matched for the tenons of each piece of timber to enter into the mortises of the other. There are many variations.
Dovetail Kind of tenon with slanting sides as a wedge reversed, mostly used for pieces of timber to be united at right angles to each other, but also end to end. The pins on one piece are fan-shaped like the tail of a pigeon and fit in sockets or eyes in the other piece. It is an interlocking joint. The French term translates literally as ‘swallow-tail’.
Dowel A wood pin. Piece of hardwood of cir­cular, oval or polygonal section, often slightly conical, used in many types of joints to hold or strengthen two pieces of timber where they join.
Draw-knife A cutting tool cran­ked at the ends for two handles. It is used for reducing the width of thin boards, chamfering, rounding edges, etc.
Draw-knife
Edge The narrow surface of timber of rectan­gular section.
Flat cradle As opposed to high cradling (see High cradle), flat cradling (parquetage bas or parquetage plat) results when reinforcing members are arranged with their broader face towards the panel.
Flat sawn Sawn in such a way that medullar rays show as cross-sections.
Flipot Piece of wood used to repair a cracked joinery work by introducing it into the crack after it has been made to fit tightly.
Flush end joint Joint formed along edges of boards laid flush alongside without any means of uniting them, except perhaps glue.
French scarf In the oblique scarf joint (enture en fausse coupe), the splicing includes two butt ends and an oblique plane of contact. The splicing for tension or French scarf includes two shifted planes of contact, the cut­ting of the timber being similar to the Thunderbolt as symbolised by the Romans in Jupiter's hand, hence the French name. There are three butting surfaces in a French scarf ­joint, and the middle one is mostly provided with a wooden key. This joint has to be bolted to fulfil its task of tension resistance.
French scarf
Gable The triangular part of the end wall of a building, from the eaves to the ridge. Corresponds in Roman and Gothic architecture to the pedi­ment (fronton) of the classic architecture.
Gablet A small gable. A decoration shaped like a gable, used in Gothic ornamentation at the top of a recess for a statue or as a complement to ogival arcades.
Gouge Kind of cutting chisel, with a channelled blade, to cut concave or convex surfaces. Used by joiners, sculptors, blacksmiths and coppersmiths.
Halved joint/ halved crosslap joint Crosswise joint of two pieces of timber, by cutting out half of the thickness of each piece. Halving means removing half of the material from each piece in any joint so that both surfaces are flush.
Head-to-foot This refers to stave-cut boards which are placed alongside, but with the broader end of one next to the narrower end of the other, so that the total breadth of both is more or less equal at both ends.
High cradle Parquetage (cradle) is used for a system of barres (bars) and traverses (cross-bars) to support the panel. It is said to be high when members are arranged with their narrow face along the panel and their broad face perpendicular to it. This gives more rigidity to the panel and diminishes the contact surface.
Loose tongue/ spline A long thin strip of wood to fit in mat­ching grooves in adjacent boards. It unites them in the same way as a tongue-and groove joint.
Loose tongue
Mitre/ miter joint Joint formed by fitting together two pieces of boards or mouldings to form an angle with the joint bisec­ting the angle. The angle of the boards generally being 90°, each mitre or miter is cut off at an angle of 45°. Mitre joints may be flat joints or tenon-and-mortise joints, or provided with any kind of key or connector.
Mitre joint
Mortise A cavity cut in a piece of timber to receive a tenon or tongue projecting from ano­ther piece. A mortise differs from a groove in that it has sides.
Painting border/ fin Panels originally painted with their frame have at the slot opening in the frame an excess of accumulated preparation and paint. This border or fin therefore shows when the panel is taken out of the frame. A border remains at the edge of the panel where the natural wood is exposed.
Paring-axe A cooper's and carpen­ter's tool, a kind of axe, the cutting edge of which is oblique to the shaft. Used for paring cuts on timber to be united.
Paring-axe
Plain butt end joint This cannot be considered a joint unless glued, and even then will not provide any strength.
Quarter-sawn Sawn in such a way that medullar rays of the wood are exposed length­wise.
Riving knife Tool used by stave­-cleavers with a slightly curved blade on the back which is struck with a mallet to progressively separate the wood fibres. Regional French variations: coutre, départoir, fendoir, merlin.
Riving knife
Scarf / scarfing/ scarf joint A lengthening joint in structural timbers that does not increase the cross-sectional area. It is made by notching and lapping the ends in such a manner that the two pieces appear as one.
Shoulder A projection to give strength and support such as the projection at the root of a tenon in a haunched mortise-and-tenon joint.
Stave Stave-cut boards are narrower at one end than at the other, like the staves of a wooden bucket.
Tenon The end of a piece of timber reduced in section to fit in a recess or cavity of the same size, termed a mortise.
Through tenon A tenon that shows on the outside of the stile, the mortise having been cut through the rail.
Tongue A reduction of the thick­ness of a board by rebating opposite faces. The tongue fits into a matched groove in an adjacent board to streng­then the edge joint which is then termed a tongue-and-groove joint. It corresponds lengthwise to a tenon in a tenon-and-mortise end joint.
Tongue
Tunnel Once wood has been attacked by woodworm, it is necessarily run through by numerous tunnels, but only after the wood has been made thinner are such tunnels to be seen. Holes on surfaces correspond to the outlets of such tunnels. There are always tunnels in worm-eaten woods, but we do not mention them unless they are exposed in the surface of the panel; this provides interesting evidence that the panel has either been divided in two or made thinner.
Adze A carpenter's tool used for squa­ring logs, levelling horizontal surfaces, etc. It has a thin arched blade at right angles to the shaft, as compared with the axe which has the blade parallel to the shaft.
Herminette Sorte de hache à tran­chant recourbé, dont la lame est per­pendiculaire à la direction du manche et qui est utilisée par le charpentier pour faire des entailles, dresser les bois.
Adze
Bar We make use of the word bar to indi­cate any piece of timber that is placed along the height of a panel, in opposition to the term traverse (cross-bar) used for pieces of timber which are placed along the breadth of a panel.
Barre Nous appelons « barre » toute pièce de bois placée dans le sens de la hauteur du panneau par opposition à la « traverse » placée dans le sens de la largeur. Par convention, ces termes s'appliquent indis­tinctement à des éléments de renfort ou de cadre ainsi orientés.
Bevel Edge not cut at right angles on the faces, one side of the board forming with the adjacent sides angles greater or less respectively than a right angle.
Biseau Rive taillée obliquement au lieu de former arête à angle droit.
Bevel (English)
Bevelled joint Joint uniting lengthwise two boards, the edges of which are bevelled to match with one another, thus forming a kind of inser­tion of an edge into an angular groove. Used now for wooden cofferdams.
Joint refeullé Joint formé par la réunion de deux planches juxtaposées en long, de manière à constituer une sorte d'encaissement.
Bevelled joint
Brace A member of a framed structure, cros­sing a space diagonally and able to resist tension or compression, imparting stiffness to the struc­ture.
Écharpe Pièce oblique assemblée entre deux pièces horizontales pour assurer la rigidité de l'ensemble.
Butt end End by which a piece of timber is joined with another.
About Extrémité par laquelle toute pièce de bois est assemblée avec une autre.
Chamfer A bevelled edge, but the bevel not reaching the opposite side, both angles formed by the chamfer with the adjacent sides of the piece of timber being accordingly greater than a right angle (see Bevel).
Chanfrein Pan oblique formé par l'arête abattue d'une pièce de bois (voir Biseau).
Cleaver Kind of axe used to cleave hop poles, firewood, etc.
Coutre Hache servant à refendre les échalas, le bois de chauffage, etc. C'est un outil que le fendeur utilise pour dresser, dégrossir et aplanir les planches. Cet instrument tranchant est légère­ment cintré et fendu à son extrémité.
Cleaver
Cross-bar see Bar
Traverse voir Barre
Cross-grain Grain not parallel with the axis of a piece of timber. Cross-grain painting, cross-grain cutting, etc., means painting, cutting, etc., made in the direction contrary to the grain of the wood.
Fil croisé ou Contre-fil Une peinture ou une traverse à fil croisé s'entend dans le sens contraire au fil du bois.
Double dovetail key A small piece of hard wood acting as a key, with two dovetailed sections, used for end-to-end butt joints and for mitre joints.
Papillon Se dit d'une petite pièce de bois taillée à queue d'aronde aux deux extrémités. Celle-ci offre l'aspect de deux trapèzes joints par leur petit côté.
Double dovetail key
Double halved (scarf joint) Kind of mortise-and-tenon joint where each piece of timber is provided with two tenons and two mortises, matched for the tenons of each piece of timber to enter into the mortises of the other. There are many variations.
Tenon croisé ou Tenon en croix Tenon pratiqué sur chacune des deux pièces à assembler, à la suite de la mortaise qui doit recevoir le tenon de l'autre pièce.
Dovetail Kind of tenon with slanting sides as a wedge reversed, mostly used for pieces of timber to be united at right angles to each other, but also end to end. The pins on one piece are fan-shaped like the tail of a pigeon and fit in sockets or eyes in the other piece. It is an interlocking joint. The French term translates literally as ‘swallow-tail’.
Queue d'aronde ou Queue d'hironde (ou hirondo en vieux français). Tenon taillé sur l'about d'une pièce et allant en s'élargissant comme le fait une queue d'hirondelle. Les pièces de bois ainsi assemblées sont dites « assemblées en queue d'aronde ». On l'emploie surtout pour réunir par leurs extrémités des pièces assemblées d'équerre.
Dowel A wood pin. Piece of hardwood of cir­cular, oval or polygonal section, often slightly conical, used in many types of joints to hold or strengthen two pieces of timber where they join.
Cheville Petit morceau de bois ayant sa lon­gueur dans le sens des fibres, de section circu­laire ou polygonale servant à fixer les assem­blages.
Draw-knife A cutting tool cran­ked at the ends for two handles. It is used for reducing the width of thin boards, chamfering, rounding edges, etc.
Plane Outil tranchant à deux poi­gnées dont se servent les charrons et les tonneliers. Dans la charpenterie, la plane cintrée et droite pouvait être utilisée pour aplanir ou dresser le bois.
Draw-knife
Edge The narrow surface of timber of rectan­gular section.
Rive Face correspondant à l'épaisseur d'une planche.
Flat cradle As opposed to high cradling (see High cradle), flat cradling (parquetage bas or parquetage plat) results when reinforcing members are arranged with their broader face towards the panel.
Parquetage bas ou Plat (voir Parquetage haut)
Flat sawn Sawn in such a way that medullar rays show as cross-sections.
Debit sur dosse Scié de telle façon que les rayons médullaires du bois se montrent en section transversale.
Flipot Piece of wood used to repair a cracked joinery work by introducing it into the crack after it has been made to fit tightly.
Flipot Morceau de bois rapporté pour dissi­muler une fente dans un ouvrage de menuiserie.
Flush end joint Joint formed along edges of boards laid flush alongside without any means of uniting them, except perhaps glue.
Joint vif ou Plat joint Un panneau à joints plats est réalisé par une juxtaposition de planches collées bord à bord, sans aucun assem­blage.
French scarf In the oblique scarf joint (enture en fausse coupe), the splicing includes two butt ends and an oblique plane of contact. The splicing for tension or French scarf includes two shifted planes of contact, the cut­ting of the timber being similar to the Thunderbolt as symbolised by the Romans in Jupiter's hand, hence the French name. There are three butting surfaces in a French scarf ­joint, and the middle one is mostly provided with a wooden key. This joint has to be bolted to fulfil its task of tension resistance.
Trait de jupiter Mode d'as­semblage des bois dont le profil pré­sente une ligne brisée qu'on a compa­rée aux « Foudres de Jupiter ». C'est un assemblage dérivé de l'assemblage à rainures et languettes. Il doit être maintenu, comme beaucoup de ces assemblages, par des chevilles, des vis ou par un collage, en raison de l'exi­guïté que présentent souvent leurs surfaces de contact.
French scarf
Gable The triangular part of the end wall of a building, from the eaves to the ridge. Corresponds in Roman and Gothic architecture to the pedi­ment (fronton) of the classic architecture.
Gable Sorte de fronton triangulaire et toujours très allongé, fréquemment en usage dans l'archi­tecture romane et l'architecture gothique.
Gablet A small gable. A decoration shaped like a gable, used in Gothic ornamentation at the top of a recess for a statue or as a complement to ogival arcades.
Gablet Gâble de petite dimension servant, dans les ornements de l'époque gothique, à cou­ronner une niche de statue, à terminer de petites arcades ogivales.
Gouge Kind of cutting chisel, with a channelled blade, to cut concave or convex surfaces. Used by joiners, sculptors, blacksmiths and coppersmiths.
Gouge Espèce de ciseau creusé en gouttière, dont se servent les sculpteurs, les menuisiers, les forgerons, les chaudronniers, etc.
Halved joint/ halved crosslap joint Crosswise joint of two pieces of timber, by cutting out half of the thickness of each piece. Halving means removing half of the material from each piece in any joint so that both surfaces are flush.
Mi-bois Enture destinée à assembler des pièces perpendiculaires entre elles. On réalise cet assem­blage en entaillant les deux pièces sur la moitié de leur épaisseur.
Head-to-foot This refers to stave-cut boards which are placed alongside, but with the broader end of one next to the narrower end of the other, so that the total breadth of both is more or less equal at both ends.
Tëte-bëche Se dit quand deux traverses taillées en fuseau sont placées à côté l'une de l'autre dans un sens inverse, les extrémités iden­tiques se contrariant.
High cradle Parquetage (cradle) is used for a system of barres (bars) and traverses (cross-bars) to support the panel. It is said to be high when members are arranged with their narrow face along the panel and their broad face perpendicular to it. This gives more rigidity to the panel and diminishes the contact surface.
Parquetage haut Par opposition au parquetage plat, le parquetage haut présente un système de barres et de traverses de plus faible largeur et d'épaisseur plus importante, ce qui réduit la surface de contact du ren­fort avec le panneau.
Loose tongue/ spline A long thin strip of wood to fit in mat­ching grooves in adjacent boards. It unites them in the same way as a tongue-and groove joint.
Languette rapportée ou Fausse languette Pièce de bois que l'on fait entrer dans les rainures pratiquées dans les rives de deux planches contiguës, et qui sert à les unir.
Loose tongue
Mitre/ miter joint Joint formed by fitting together two pieces of boards or mouldings to form an angle with the joint bisec­ting the angle. The angle of the boards generally being 90°, each mitre or miter is cut off at an angle of 45°. Mitre joints may be flat joints or tenon-and-mortise joints, or provided with any kind of key or connector.
Onglet L'assemblage à onglet ou en onglet, réunit deux pièces par leurs bouts à angle droit, de telle sorte que les surfaces d'arasement forment entre elles un angle de 45°. Cet assemblage peut être réalisé à joints plats ou à tenon et mortaise.
Mitre joint
Mortise A cavity cut in a piece of timber to receive a tenon or tongue projecting from ano­ther piece. A mortise differs from a groove in that it has sides.
Mortaise Entaille pratiquée dans une pièce de bois, de façon à recevoir une partie saillante ou tenon. Il y a différentes manières de pratiquer cet assemblage, qui peut être droit ou oblique, et comporter un ou plusieurs tenons.
Painting border/fin Panels originally painted with their frame have at the slot opening in the frame an excess of accumulated preparation and paint. This border or fin therefore shows when the panel is taken out of the frame. A border remains at the edge of the panel where the natural wood is exposed.
Bourrelet ou Barbe de peinture Les panneaux peints à l'origine avec leur cadre présentent, à l'emplacement de la fente qui les séparait, une surcharge de préparation et de peinture accumulées. Le bourrelet ou barbe ainsi formé apparaît lorsque le panneau est séparé de son cadre, laissant à nu sur le bord du panneau la surface de bois qu'il recouvrait.
Paring-axe A cooper's and carpen­ter's tool, a kind of axe, the cutting edge of which is oblique to the shaft. Used for paring cuts on timber to be united.
Doloire Instrument de tonnelier et de charpentier qui est une sorte de hache destinée à dresser le bois en vue de réaliser des assemblages. C'est, en principe, une cognée à taillant droit, oblique par rapport au manche et tou­jours large avec manche court.
Paring-axe
Plain butt end joint This cannot be considered a joint unless glued, and even then will not provide any strength.
Joint de bout simple Un tel joint n'est pas un assemblage à moins d'être collé, et même alors il ne présente aucune résistance.
Quarter-sawn Sawn in such a way that medullar rays of the wood are exposed length­wise.
Debit sur maille Scié de telle façon que les rayons médullaires du bois soient présentés en long.
Riving knife Tool used by stave­-cleavers with a slightly curved blade on the back which is struck with a mallet to progressively separate the wood fibres. Regional French variations: coutre, départoir, fendoir, merlin.
Départoir Outil utilisé par l'ouvrier fendeur de merrain pour faire l'opéra­tion du départage. Le fendeur enfonce le départoir en frappant sur sa lame avec un maillet et en sollicitant pro­gressivement la séparation des fibres de la bille de bois. (Dans certaines régions, le départoir est appelé coutre, fendoir et merlin.)
Riving knife
Scarf / scarfing/ scarf joint A lengthening joint in structural timbers that does not increase the cross-sectional area. It is made by notching and lapping the ends in such a manner that the two pieces appear as one.
Enture, assemblage a enture ou Assemblage bout a bout Jonc­tion de deux pièces de bois mises bout à bout au moyen d'assemblages de dispositions diffé­rentes.
Shoulder A projection to give strength and support such as the projection at the root of a tenon in a haunched mortise-and-tenon joint.
Épaulement Partie formant appui pratiqué sur la rive d'une planche amincie à mi-bois, par exemple, pour assurer de la force à l'assemblage de deux pièces.
Stave Stave-cut boards are narrower at one end than at the other, like the staves of a wooden bucket.
Fuseau Les planches ou les traverses taillées en fuseau sont plus étroites à l'une de leurs extrémités.
Tenon The end of a piece of timber reduced in section to fit in a recess or cavity of the same size, termed a mortise.
Tenon Extrémité taillée et amincie d'une pièce, qu'on fait entrer dans une mortaise pratiquée dans une autre pièce.
Through tenon A tenon that shows on the outside of the stile, the mortise having been cut through the rail.
Tenon passant Tenon qui traverse de part en part la pièce dans laquelle il est enchassé.
Tongue A reduction of the thick­ness of a board by rebating opposite faces. The tongue fits into a matched groove in an adjacent board to streng­then the edge joint which is then termed a tongue-and-groove joint. It corresponds lengthwise to a tenon in a tenon-and-mortise end joint.
Languette Tenon continu dans l'assemblage à rainures et à lan­guettes. Ce tenon continu est « ré­servé » sur les rives d'une planche et destiné à entrer dans la rainure de la planche contiguë.
Tongue
Tunnel Once wood has been attacked by woodworm, it is necessarily run through by numerous tunnels, but only after the wood has been made thinner are such tunnels to be seen. Holes on surfaces correspond to the outlets of such tunnels. There are always tunnels in worm-eaten woods, but we do not mention them unless they are exposed in the surface of the panel; this provides interesting evidence that the panel has either been divided in two or made thinner.
Gallerie de vers Un bois attaqué par les vers est nécessairement sillonné de galeries, mais celles-ci ne sont visibles que lorsque le bois a été aminci. Les trous en surface correspondent aux sorties de ces galeries. Il y a donc toujours des galeries dans un bois vermoulu; cependant nous ne les mentionnons que dans le cas où celles-ci sont visibles à la surface du panneau. Il est inté­ressant, en effet, de noter ce point comme une preuve du dédoublement ou de l'amincissement d'un panneau.
Adze A carpenter's tool used for squa­ring logs, levelling horizontal surfaces, etc. It has a thin arched blade at right angles to the shaft, as compared with the axe which has the blade parallel to the shaft.
Dachsbeil, Dächsel, Dechsel Beil mit quer zum Stiel stehender Schneide zum Schlichten und Glätten der Bretter, das wie eine Hacke benutzt wird. Es hinterlässt unregelmäßige, eiförmige Vertiefungen.
Adze
Bar We make use of the word bar to indi­cate any piece of timber that is placed along the height of a panel, in opposition to the term traverse (cross-bar) used for pieces of timber which are placed along the breadth of a panel.
Längsleiste, Stab Als „Längsleiste“ bzw. „Stab“ wird hier jedes Holzstück bezeichnet, dass in vertikaler Richtung zur Tafel (in der Höhe) angeordnet ist, während eine „Querleiste“ bzw. „Traverse“ ein zur Tafel horizontal angeordnetes Holzstück (in der Breite) bezeichnet. Dies gilt sowohl für Teile des Rahmens als auch für Teile, die der Stabilisierung der Tafel dienen.
Bevel Edge not cut at right angles on the faces, one side of the board forming with the adjacent sides angles greater or less respectively than a right angle.
Fase (durchgehend), Abfasung, Abschrägung Schräg geschnittene Kante eines Holzstücks/Brettes. Sie bildet eine zwischen den beiden Oberflächen des Holzstücks/Brettes durchgehende Kante mit einem Winkel größer oder kleiner 90°.
Bevel (English)
Bevelled joint Joint uniting lengthwise two boards, the edges of which are bevelled to match with one another, thus forming a kind of inser­tion of an edge into an angular groove. Used now for wooden cofferdams.
Keilnut u. Keilfeder, Keilnut-Keilfeder-Verbindung Holzverband aus einer keilförmigen Nut an der Seite eines Fügeteils und einer keilförmig gearbeiteten Kante (Keilfeder) am anderen Fügeteil. Mitunter auch als „joint chanfreiné“ bezeichnet.
Bevelled joint
Brace A member of a framed structure, cros­sing a space diagonally and able to resist tension or compression, imparting stiffness to the struc­ture.
Diagonalleiste, Verstrebung, Strebe Zwischen zwei horizontal angeordneten Teilen schräg verlaufendes Teil zur Stabilisierung der Konstruktion.
Butt end End by which a piece of timber is joined with another.
Stoß, Stoßfläche, Fuge (Stirnseite, Stirnfläche) Kontaktfläche zweier aneinander zu fügenden Teile (bei Längsverbindung, d.h. an der Kurzseite, meist Stoß; bei Breitverbindung, d.h. an der Längsseite, meist Fuge, aber auch Stoß) bzw. die auf diese Weise entstehende Verbindung (Stoßverbindung). Mitunter bezeichnet „about“ auch die Stirnseite eines Holzstücks.
Chamfer A bevelled edge, but the bevel not reaching the opposite side, both angles formed by the chamfer with the adjacent sides of the piece of timber being accordingly greater than a right angle (see Bevel).
Fase (nicht immer durchgehend), gebrochene Kante, Abfasung, Abschrägung Schräg angeschnittene Kante eines Holzstücks/Brettes. Sie bildet keine durchgehende Kante zwischen den beiden Oberflächen des Holzstücks/Brettes. (vgl. Fase (durchgehend), Abfasung, Abschrägungl)
Cleaver Kind of axe used to cleave hop poles, firewood, etc.
Spaltbeil (Spaltklinge) Beil zum Spalten von Holzstücken, Brennholz usw. Der Tafelmacher benutzte es zum Schlichten, Behauen und Glätten der Bretter. Diese in Frankreich verwendete Form des Spaltbeils besitzt eine leicht gekrümmte und an der Spitze gespaltene Klinge. Mitunter bezeichnet „coutre“ auch die anders geformte Spaltklinge (a. Klöbeisen) des Böttchers.
Cleaver
Cross-bar see Bar
Querleiste, Querholz, Traverse, Riegel (vgl. Längsleiste, Stab).
Cross-grain Grain not parallel with the axis of a piece of timber. Cross-grain painting, cross-grain cutting, etc., means painting, cutting, etc., made in the direction contrary to the grain of the wood.
Ein Farbauftrag oder eine Leiste, der/die nicht dem Verlauf der Holzfaser folgt, sondern quer zu diesem angeordnet ist.
Double dovetail key A small piece of hard wood acting as a key, with two dovetailed sections, used for end-to-end butt joints and for mitre joints.
Doppelschwalbenschwanz Verbindungsstück in Form eines doppelten Schwalbenschwanzes, d.h., in Aufsicht betrachtet, in Form zweier Trapeze, die an den Schmalseiten miteinander verbunden sind.
Double dovetail key
Double halved (scarf joint) Kind of mortise-and-tenon joint where each piece of timber is provided with two tenons and two mortises, matched for the tenons of each piece of timber to enter into the mortises of the other. There are many variations.
Kreuzzapfen Besonders verwindungssteifer Holzverband zur Verlängerung vertikaler Hölzer. Schlitze und Zapfen an den beiden Fügeteilen sind kreuzförmig gearbeitet.
Dovetail Kind of tenon with slanting sides as a wedge reversed, mostly used for pieces of timber to be united at right angles to each other, but also end to end. The pins on one piece are fan-shaped like the tail of a pigeon and fit in sockets or eyes in the other piece. It is an interlocking joint. The French term translates literally as ‘swallow-tail’.
Schwalbenschwanz An der zu fügenden Kante eines Brettes gearbeiteter, trapezförmig Zapfen, dessen Form der eines Schwalbenschwanzes ähnelt. Ein solcher Holzverband wird als Schwalbenschwanzverbindung bezeichnet (bei mehreren nebeneinanderliegenden Zapfen: Schwalbenschwanzverzinkung) und findet vor allem bei rechtwinkligen Verbindungen Anwendung.
Dowel A wood pin. Piece of hardwood of cir­cular, oval or polygonal section, often slightly conical, used in many types of joints to hold or strengthen two pieces of timber where they join.
Dübel (Zapfen, Stift) Kleines, in Faserrichtung gearbeitetes Holzstück mit kreisrundem oder polygonalem Querschnitt, das als Verbindungselement für Holzverbindungen dient. Mitunter bezeichnet „cheville“ auch einen Zapfen oder Stift aus Holz.
Draw-knife A cutting tool cran­ked at the ends for two handles. It is used for reducing the width of thin boards, chamfering, rounding edges, etc.
Ziehmesser, Zugmesser Zweigriffiges Werkzeug der Wagner und Böttcher mit rechtwinklig zu den Griffen stehender, gerader oder leicht gekrümmter, Schneide. Im Zimmerhandwerk diente das Ziehmesser auch zum Schlichten oder Glätten des Holzes, Tafelmacher nutzten es zum Glätten der Bretter.
Draw-knife
Edge The narrow surface of timber of rectan­gular section.
Kante (Stoß) Senkrecht zu den beiden Hauptoberflächen eines Brettes verlaufende Fläche. Ihre Höhe entspricht der Stärke des Holzstücks.
Flat cradle As opposed to high cradling (see High cradle), flat cradling (parquetage bas or parquetage plat) results when reinforcing members are arranged with their broader face towards the panel.
Flachparkett (vgl. Hochparkett)
Flat sawn Sawn in such a way that medullar rays show as cross-sections.
Tangentialschnitt, Fladerschnitt, Parallelschnitt, Sehnenschnitt Schnitt des Stamms parallel zur Stammachse und tangential zu den Jahrringen. Die durch die Jahrringe erscheinende Maserung wird auch als „Flader“ bezeichnet. Die Markstrahlen zeigen sich als kurze, meist dunkel abgesetzte Striche in Faserrichtung.
Flipot Piece of wood used to repair a cracked joinery work by introducing it into the crack after it has been made to fit tightly.
Füllstückchen, Füllstäbchen, Flipot Holzstück zum Ausfüllen von Rissen an Tischlerarbeiten. „Flipot“ ist eine früher auch im Deutschen verwendete Bezeichnung für Holzstückchen zum Abdecken von Nagel- oder Schraubenköpfen.
Flush end joint Joint formed along edges of boards laid flush alongside without any means of uniting them, except perhaps glue.
Stoßfuge, stumpfe Fuge (Leimfuge) Verbindung, bei der die Tafelbretter an der Längsseite (auch Kurzseite) stumpf aneinander gefügt und lediglich verleimt werden. In diesem Sinne auch „Leimfuge“. „Stoßfuge“ wird des Öfteren auch im Sinne von „Stoß“ verwendet und besitzt im Holzverband eine andere Bedeutung als in einem Mauerverband. Vereinzelt erfolgte die Tafelherstellung auch mittels unverleimten Stoßfugen, die Bretter wurden dann mit Metall- oder Holznägeln auf Querleisten befestigt.
French scarf In the oblique scarf joint (enture en fausse coupe), the splicing includes two butt ends and an oblique plane of contact. The splicing for tension or French scarf includes two shifted planes of contact, the cut­ting of the timber being similar to the Thunderbolt as symbolised by the Romans in Jupiter's hand, hence the French name. There are three butting surfaces in a French scarf ­joint, and the middle one is mostly provided with a wooden key. This joint has to be bolted to fulfil its task of tension resistance.
Hakenblatt, Hakenblattverbindung, Hakenblattung, Hakenverblattung Holzverband zur Längsverbindung aus zwei hakenförmig ineinandergreifenden Zapfen. Eine Hakenblattverbindung kann gerade oder schräg ausgeführt werden und ist meist mit Dübeln oder Keilen bzw. Schrauben oder durch Verleimung gesichert. Die französische Bezeichnung „trait de Jupiter“ leitet sich von der Form ab, die diese Verbindung im Profil zeigt: Man hat diese mit den Blitzbündeln des Iupiter verglichen.
French scarf
Gable The triangular part of the end wall of a building, from the eaves to the ridge. Corresponds in Roman and Gothic architecture to the pedi­ment (fronton) of the classic architecture.
Wimperg (Ziergiebel) Spitzwinkliger Ziergiebel über Fenstern, Türen und Portalen, vor allem bei romanischen und gotischen Bauwerken anzutreffen. In der Architektur ist besonders die Bezeichnung „Wimperg“ üblich.
Gablet A small gable. A decoration shaped like a gable, used in Gothic ornamentation at the top of a recess for a statue or as a complement to ogival arcades.
Ziergiebel (Wimperg) Kleiner Giebel zur Bekrönung von Statuennischen oder als Abschluss über Spitzbögen. Auch als dekoratives Element von Bildwerken, Altären, Rahmen usw., vor allem in der Gotik. In der Architektur ist besonders die Bezeichnung „Wimperg“ üblich.
Gouge Kind of cutting chisel, with a channelled blade, to cut concave or convex surfaces. Used by joiners, sculptors, blacksmiths and coppersmiths.
Hohlmeißel, Hohlbeitel, Hohleisen Werkzeug mit gewölbter Klinge zum Ausstemmen von Vertiefungen. Der Hohlmeißel findet in zahlreichen Handwerksberufen bei der Holzbearbeitung Einsatz.
Halved joint/ halved crosslap joint Crosswise joint of two pieces of timber, by cutting out half of the thickness of each piece. Halving means removing half of the material from each piece in any joint so that both surfaces are flush.
Überblattung, Verblattung Holzverband zweier in der Längsachse oder im rechten Winkel zu fügenden Teile. Bei der Überblattung werden die Hölzer an ihrem Ende so ausgeschnitten, dass der verbleibende Holzteil, das sogenannte Blatt, jeweils den Ausschnitt des anderen Fügeteils passgenau und vollständig ausfüllt. Ausgeführt werden auch Überblattungen auf Gehrung oder (Kreuz-)Überplattungen.
Head-to-foot This refers to stave-cut boards which are placed alongside, but with the broader end of one next to the narrower end of the other, so that the total breadth of both is more or less equal at both ends.
Gegenläufig, über Kopf, versetzt Zwei sich entlang der Längsachse verjüngende Querleisten oder Bretter werden so nebeneinander gefügt, dass die schmalere und die breitere Kurzseite an entgegengesetzten Enden liegen.
High cradle Parquetage (cradle) is used for a system of barres (bars) and traverses (cross-bars) to support the panel. It is said to be high when members are arranged with their narrow face along the panel and their broad face perpendicular to it. This gives more rigidity to the panel and diminishes the contact surface.
Hochparkett Im Gegensatz zum Flachparkett sind die aufgeleimten Leisten beim Hochparkett schmaler und höher. Durch die geringere Leimfläche wird das Holz der Tafel weniger am „Arbeiten“ gehindert. Ein Parkett (a. Parkettierung) dient an der Rückseite von Tafeln als Stützkonstruktion: Die aufgeleimten (Tafeln) Leisten verlaufen parallel, die beweglichen, eingeschobenen Leisten quer zur Faserrichtung.
Loose tongue/ spline A long thin strip of wood to fit in mat­ching grooves in adjacent boards. It unites them in the same way as a tongue-and groove joint.
Feder, Einsteckfeder Holzleiste, die in die, an den Kanten zweier zu fügenden Bretter gearbeiteten, Nuten greift und diese beiden Bretter zu einer Nut-und-Feder-Verbindung („assemblage à rainures et à languettes“) fügt.
Loose tongue
Mitre/ miter joint Joint formed by fitting together two pieces of boards or mouldings to form an angle with the joint bisec­ting the angle. The angle of the boards generally being 90°, each mitre or miter is cut off at an angle of 45°. Mitre joints may be flat joints or tenon-and-mortise joints, or provided with any kind of key or connector.
Gehrung, Gehre, Gehrungsverbindung Eckfuge oder Eckverbindung zweier im Winkel aufeinander stoßenden Kanten, die meist in der Winkelhalbierenden („echte Gehrung“, in allen anderen Fällen „unechte Gehrung“) liegt. Diese Verbindung kann stumpf oder mit Schlitz und Zapfen ausgeführt werden.
Mitre joint
Mortise A cavity cut in a piece of timber to receive a tenon or tongue projecting from ano­ther piece. A mortise differs from a groove in that it has sides.
Zapfenloch, Schlitz Ausgestemmte Aussparung unterschiedlichen Querschnitts in einem Holzstück, die zur Aufnahme eines sogenannten Zapfens dient. Schlitz-und-Zapfen-Verbindungen können auf verschieden Art und Weise ausgeführt werden (Verbindung in der Längsachse, T-Verbindung, Verbindung im rechten Winkel, in Gehrung; mit Sackloch, mit einem das Holzstück durchdringenden Loch, mit „Schlitz“; mit einem einzigen oder mehreren Zapfen). Zapfenloch und Schlitz werden im Kontext von Holzverbänden synonym gebraucht, obgleich es sich korrekterweise beim Zapfenloch um ein Sack- bzw. durchgehendes Loch, beim Schlitz lediglich um eine tief ausgearbeitete Nut handelt.
Painting border/ fin Panels originally painted with their frame have at the slot opening in the frame an excess of accumulated preparation and paint. This border or fin therefore shows when the panel is taken out of the frame. A border remains at the edge of the panel where the natural wood is exposed.
Grundiergrat Bei Tafelbildern wurde in der Regel die Bildtafel gemeinsam mit dem Zierrahmen grundiert. Beide bildeten demnach eine Einheit. Wurde diese Einheit zerstört, entstand eine Stufe zwischen Malfläche und den ehemals vom Rahmen abgedeckten und deshalb ungrundierten Rändern der Tafel. Dieser Absatz oder Grat, häufig auch Wulst, wird als Grundiergrat bezeichnet. Der Grundiergrat ist nicht mit dem Malrand identisch: Ein Malrand ist ein grundierter, nicht bemalter Streifen, der in der Regel rund um das Gemälde verläuft und nach dem Einrahmen vom Zierrahmenfalz verdeckt wird.
Paring-axe A cooper's and carpen­ter's tool, a kind of axe, the cutting edge of which is oblique to the shaft. Used for paring cuts on timber to be united.
Breitbeil, Dünnbeil, Schlichtbeil Werkzeug der Böttcher und Zimmerer, mit dem die Langholzkanten der zu fügenden Bretter/Holzteile geschlichtet werden. Diese Axt besitzt eine breite, geradlinige oder leicht gekrümmte Schneide, die gegenüber dem Stiel etwas schräg steht und zudem nach links oder rechts versetzt sein kann („linkes Breitbeil“, „rechtes Breitbeil“). Je nach Handwerk können Form und Bezeichnung variieren (z.B. Böttcher: Lenkbeil, Binderbarte; Zimmerer: Zimmerbeil). Charakteristisch ist auch der kurze Stiel.
Paring-axe
Plain butt end joint This cannot be considered a joint unless glued, and even then will not provide any strength.
Stumpfstoßverbindung, stumpfe Stoßverbindung Eine Stumpfstoßverbindung kann nur dann als Holzverband bezeichnet werden, wenn sie geleimt oder auf andere Weise gegen Druck und Zug gesichert ist (z.B. Nägel, Schrauben). Verleimte Stumpfstoßverbindungen weisen jedoch nur eine sehr geringe Widerstandsfähigkeit auf.
Quarter-sawn Sawn in such a way that medullar rays of the wood are exposed length­wise.
Spiegelschnitt, Radialschnitt, Spaltschnitt Schnitt parallel zur Stammachse und parallel zu den Markstrahlen. Bei diesem Schnitt werden die parallel verlaufenden Markstrahlen der Länge nach aufgeschnitten. Dadurch entstehen glänzende Bänder und/oder kleine schuppenartige Flächen, die als „Spiegel“ bezeichnet werden. Als „section sur maille“ wird zudem die Methode des „Quadrierens“ eines Stammes bezeichnet, die lauter sog. Kernbretter mit mehr oder weniger senkrecht stehenden Jahrringen im Querschnitt ergibt. Diese wurden für besonders wertvolle Tafeln verwendet.
Riving knife Tool used by stave­-cleavers with a slightly curved blade on the back which is struck with a mallet to progressively separate the wood fibres. Regional French variations: coutre, départoir, fendoir, merlin.
Spaltklinge, Spaltmesser (Klöbeisen) Werkzeug zum Spalten von Holzstücken. Die Spaltklinge wird mithilfe eines Schlegels in das Holz getrieben, sodass sich dieses in Faserrichtung spaltet. Zum Einsatz kommt es heute vereinzelt im traditionellen Stuhlbau bzw. im Böttcherhandwerk („Klöbeisen“ zum Spalten von Daubenholz). In einigen Regionen Frankreichs ist anstelle von „départoir“ auch die Bezeichnung „coutre“, „fendoir“ oder „merlin“ üblich.
Riving knife
Scarf / scarfing/ scarf joint A lengthening joint in structural timbers that does not increase the cross-sectional area. It is made by notching and lapping the ends in such a manner that the two pieces appear as one.
Stoßverbindung Verbindung, die durch das Fügen zweier Flächen entsteht, die senkrecht zu den Hauptoberflächen der Fügeteile verlaufen. Stoßverbindungen können gerade, schräg oder auf Gehrung ausgeführt sein und müssen gegen Zug oder Druck gesichert werden (in Form eines Holzverbands und/oder durch Nägel, Schrauben usw.). Oft bezieht sich die Bezeichnung „Stoßverbindung“ auf eine Längsverbindung (d.h. an der Kurzseite) in einer Ebene und zwei Hölzer von gleichem Querschnitt. Mitunter wird eine Stoßverbindung auch als „joint de bout“ bezeichnet.
Shoulder A projection to give strength and support such as the projection at the root of a tenon in a haunched mortise-and-tenon joint.
Falz; Falzen, Überfälzung, Überfälzen Beim Falzen/Überfälzen wird die Kante eines Brettes zur Hälfte ausgeklinkt (weniger tief als bei einer Überblattung). Der Falz bildet eine Art Schulter zur Stabilisierung der Verbindung zweier Fügeteile. Diese Art des Holzverbands wird mitunter auch als „enture à mi-bois“ bezeichnet.
Stave Stave-cut boards are narrower at one end than at the other, like the staves of a wooden bucket.
Verjüngung, verjüngend Sich verjüngende Bretter oder Leisten besitzen zwei Enden unterschiedlicher Breite.
Tenon The end of a piece of timber reduced in section to fit in a recess or cavity of the same size, termed a mortise.
Tenon = Zapfen Aus dem Holzteil an der Fügefläche gearbeitetes, auskragendes Verbindungselement einer Schlitz-und-Zapfen-Verbindung. Es bildet das Gegenstück zum Zapfenloch/Schlitz im anderen Fügeteil.
Through tenon A tenon that shows on the outside of the stile, the mortise having been cut through the rail.
Vollzapfen, durchgestemmter Zapfen, durchgehender Zapfen Der Vollzapfen durchstößt das Zapfenloch vollständig, kann bündig an dessen Rückseite abschließen oder über dieses hinausragen und mit einem Keil gesichert werden.
Tongue A reduction of the thick­ness of a board by rebating opposite faces. The tongue fits into a matched groove in an adjacent board to streng­then the edge joint which is then termed a tongue-and-groove joint. It corresponds lengthwise to a tenon in a tenon-and-mortise end joint.
Feder Durchgehende, angefräste oder mit dem Hobel gearbeitete, Leiste an einer Brettkante zur Verbindung zweier Brettkanten durch Eingreifen in die Nut an der Brettkante des anderen Fügeteils (Nut-und-Feder-Verbindung, a. Spundung = „assemblage à rainures et à languettes“). Korrekterweise spricht man bei der durchgehenden Feder von einer „angestoßenen“ Feder. „Feder“ allein bezeichnet im Fachjargon meist eine eingeschobene Feder.
Tongue
Tunnel Once wood has been attacked by woodworm, it is necessarily run through by numerous tunnels, but only after the wood has been made thinner are such tunnels to be seen. Holes on surfaces correspond to the outlets of such tunnels. There are always tunnels in worm-eaten woods, but we do not mention them unless they are exposed in the surface of the panel; this provides interesting evidence that the panel has either been divided in two or made thinner.
Fraßgänge, Röhrensystem (durch Larvenfraß) Von Schadinsekten befallenes Holz weist ein meist weit verzweigtes System aus Fraßgängen auf, das von außen erst nach einer Dünnung des Holzes zu erkennen ist. Die kleinen Löcher an der Holzoberfläche stellen den Ausgang dieser Gänge dar (Fluglöcher). Wurmstichiges Holz weist also stets solche Röhrensysteme auf; sie werden hier jedoch nur erwähnt, wenn sie an der Tafeloberfläche sichtbar sind. Fraßgänge können Hinweise über eine erfolgte Aufdopplung oder Dünnung einer Tafel liefern.
Adze A carpenter's tool used for squa­ring logs, levelling horizontal surfaces, etc. It has a thin arched blade at right angles to the shaft, as compared with the axe which has the blade parallel to the shaft.
Accetta Sorta di ascia dal taglio ricurvo, con lama perpendicolare al manico. È usata in carpenteria per squadrare o smussare il legname, livellare superfici orizzontali ecc. Sinonimo: scure.
Adze
Bar We make use of the word bar to indi­cate any piece of timber that is placed along the height of a panel, in opposition to the term traverse (cross-bar) used for pieces of timber which are placed along the breadth of a panel.
Montante Elemento rettilineo, disposto parallelamente alla direzione longitudinale del tavolato. Sinonimo: longherone.
Bevel Edge not cut at right angles on the faces, one side of the board forming with the adjacent sides angles greater or less respectively than a right angle.
Bisello Lato obliquo, eseguito tra due spigoli perpendicolari. Profilo sagomato costituito da un piano inclinato che collega due superfici perpendicolari tra loro.
Bevel (English)
Bevelled joint Joint uniting lengthwise two boards, the edges of which are bevelled to match with one another, thus forming a kind of inser­tion of an edge into an angular groove. Used now for wooden cofferdams.
Giunto scanalato Giunto formato dall’unione di due assi giustapposte in senso longitudinale, con gli spigoli smussati in modo tale che uno si incassi nell’altro.
Bevelled joint
Brace A member of a framed structure, cros­sing a space diagonally and able to resist tension or compression, imparting stiffness to the struc­ture.
Diagonale Elemento disposto diagonalmente fra due elementi orizzontali per conferire rigidità alla struttura.
Butt end End by which a piece of timber is joined with another.
Testa Estremità assiale di una tavola o di altro elemento di legno. Superficie che delimita l'estremità della tavola, approssimativamente perpendicolare all'asse longitudinale della tavola stessa.
Chamfer A bevelled edge, but the bevel not reaching the opposite side, both angles formed by the chamfer with the adjacent sides of the piece of timber being accordingly greater than a right angle (see Bevel).
Cianfrino Lato obliquo formato dallo spigolo smussato di un pezzo di legno (cfr. Bisello).
Cleaver Kind of axe used to cleave hop poles, firewood, etc.
Ascia da bottaio Arnese usato per digrossare il legno, formato da un ferro con lato inferiore a taglio generalmente curvilineo nel senso verticale e orizzontale. La curvatura nel senso orizzontale varia a seconda della lavorazione da fare. Il taglio dell’ascia è perpendicolare al manico. Questo attrezzo viene impiegato per sgrossare e spianare le assi di legno. La sua lama è leggermente arcuata e presenta una fenditura sull’estremità.
Cleaver
Cross-bar see Bar
Traversa (cfr. Montante). Elemento rettilineo, o curvo, disposto perpendicolarmente alla direzione longitudinale del tavolato.
Cross-grain Grain not parallel with the axis of a piece of timber. Cross-grain painting, cross-grain cutting, etc., means painting, cutting, etc., made in the direction contrary to the grain of the wood.
Controvena Nella lavorazione del legno si dice controvena quando il ferro tagliente dell’utensile lavora con una inclinazione diversa alla fibra del legno.
Double dovetail key A small piece of hard wood acting as a key, with two dovetailed sections, used for end-to-end butt joints and for mitre joints.
Farfalla Elemento ligneo realizzato con una specie di elevata densità, sagomato a doppio trapezio nel senso della fibra. E’ incassato nello spessore del tavolato per rafforzare l'unione tra due parti. Sinonimo: cambra a farfalla.
Double dovetail key
Double halved (scarf joint) Kind of mortise-and-tenon joint where each piece of timber is provided with two tenons and two mortises, matched for the tenons of each piece of timber to enter into the mortises of the other. There are many variations.
Doppio tenone Costituisce un incastro con due tenoni (distanziati tra loro e paralleli) realizzati sulla stessa testata che si inseriscono nelle mortase corrispondenti. Viene praticato per conferire maggiore stabilità alla giunzione.
Dovetail Kind of tenon with slanting sides as a wedge reversed, mostly used for pieces of timber to be united at right angles to each other, but also end to end. The pins on one piece are fan-shaped like the tail of a pigeon and fit in sockets or eyes in the other piece. It is an interlocking joint. The French term translates literally as ‘swallow-tail’.
Coda di rondine Tipo di tenone ricavato all’estremità di un pezzo di legno; è detto ‘a coda di rondine’ per la sua forma che si allarga a trapezio. L’incastro che sfrutta questo tenone è detto ‘a coda di rondine’ ed è utilizzato soprattutto per unire due elementi ad angolo retto. Nei supporti per dipinti questa metodica è usata per indicare un tipo di traversa.
Dowel A wood pin. Piece of hardwood of cir­cular, oval or polygonal section, often slightly conical, used in many types of joints to hold or strengthen two pieces of timber where they join.
Cavicchio Elemento generalmente di legno duro realizzato nel senso delle fibre; ha sezione circolare, irregolare, con lunga rastrematura alle estremità. E’ stato usato per unire le assi in fase d’incollaggio e per unire i pannelli dipinti di trittici e polittici.
Draw-knife A cutting tool cran­ked at the ends for two handles. It is used for reducing the width of thin boards, chamfering, rounding edges, etc.
Coltello a due manici o del bottaio Strumento tagliente con due impugnature utilizzato da falegnami e bottai. In carpenteria questo strumento, con lama liscia e arcuata, poteva essere usato per piallare o levigare il legno. Si chiamava anche mastrenga o coltello a petto; lavora il legno anche su superifici irregolari, rimuove piccole quantità di legno poco maggiori dei riccioli del pialletto.
Draw-knife
Edge The narrow surface of timber of rectan­gular section.
Bordo Faccia corrispondente allo spessore di una tavola. Margine dei lati, contorno di una superficie.
Flat cradle As opposed to high cradling (see High cradle), flat cradling (parquetage bas or parquetage plat) results when reinforcing members are arranged with their broader face towards the panel.
Parchettatura a piatto (cfr. Parchettatura alta). Integrazione di zone di mancanza del legno con listelli posti a parquet.
Flat sawn Sawn in such a way that medullar rays show as cross-sections.
Tangenziale Una delle tre sezioni anatomiche fondamentali del legno: asse, o tavola ricavata per una secante della sezione trasversale e parallela all’asse.
Flipot Piece of wood used to repair a cracked joinery work by introducing it into the crack after it has been made to fit tightly.
Rappezzo Pezzo di legno aggiunto per rimediare a una rottura in un’opera di falegnameria.
Flush end joint Joint formed along edges of boards laid flush alongside without any means of uniting them, except perhaps glue.
Giunto vivo Una tavola è detta ‘a giunto vivo’ quando è formata da assi semplicemente giustapposte e incollate bordo con bordo, senza alcun tipo di incastro. Unione tra tavole a facce piane.
French scarf In the oblique scarf joint (enture en fausse coupe), the splicing includes two butt ends and an oblique plane of contact. The splicing for tension or French scarf includes two shifted planes of contact, the cut­ting of the timber being similar to the Thunderbolt as symbolised by the Romans in Jupiter's hand, hence the French name. There are three butting surfaces in a French scarf ­joint, and the middle one is mostly provided with a wooden key. This joint has to be bolted to fulfil its task of tension resistance.
Dardo di Giove Tipo di incastro di elementi in legno, il cui profilo si presenta come una linea rotta che è stata paragonata ai ‘dardi di Giove’. Deriva dall’incastro ‘a dente e “canale”’ e, come molti di questi incastri, deve essere fissato mediante tasselli, viti o incollaggio, a causa dell’esiguità delle superfici di contatto.
French scarf
Gable The triangular part of the end wall of a building, from the eaves to the ridge. Corresponds in Roman and Gothic architecture to the pedi­ment (fronton) of the classic architecture.
Ghimberga Altissimo frontone triangolare, detto anche frontone gotico, ampiamente utilizzato nell’architettura romanica e gotica. Nell’ornamentazione gotica la ghimberga, in dimensioni ridotte, costituisce il coronamento di una nicchia con statua o il completamento di un’arcata ogivale.
Gablet A small gable. A decoration shaped like a gable, used in Gothic ornamentation at the top of a recess for a statue or as a complement to ogival arcades.
Ghimberga Altissimo frontone triangolare, detto anche frontone gotico, ampiamente utilizzato nell’architettura romanica e gotica. Nell’ornamentazione gotica la ghimberga, in dimensioni ridotte, costituisce il coronamento di una nicchia con statua o il completamento di un’arcata ogivale.
Gouge Kind of cutting chisel, with a channelled blade, to cut concave or convex surfaces. Used by joiners, sculptors, blacksmiths and coppersmiths.
Sgorbia Scalpello con struttura longitudinale diritta o curvilinea, con profilo concavo, convesso o a V. I profili hanno dimensioni e sagome molto varie. La parte tagliente ha la faccia interna piana, mentre l’esterna leggermente smussata, a becco di civetta. È usata da scultori, falegnami, fabbri e ramai.
Halved joint/ halved crosslap joint Crosswise joint of two pieces of timber, by cutting out half of the thickness of each piece. Halving means removing half of the material from each piece in any joint so that both surfaces are flush.
Incastro a mezzo legno Incastro usato per unire due elementi perpendicolari tra loro. Si realizza assottigliando i due elementi per la metà del loro spessore.
Head-to-foot This refers to stave-cut boards which are placed alongside, but with the broader end of one next to the narrower end of the other, so that the total breadth of both is more or less equal at both ends.
Testa a piedi Si dice di due assi o traverse rastremate, affiancate in modo tale che l’estremità più stretta dell’una sia accanto all’estremità più larga dell’altra, così che la larghezza complessiva delle due estremità risulti sostanzialmente uguale. Metodica usata per unire due elementi lignei, generalmente dello stesso spessore. Questo tipo d’incastro si usa per unire sia di testa, sia in altre parti intermedie.
High cradle Parquetage (cradle) is used for a system of barres (bars) and traverses (cross-bars) to support the panel. It is said to be high when members are arranged with their narrow face along the panel and their broad face perpendicular to it. This gives more rigidity to the panel and diminishes the contact surface.
Parchettatura alta Sistema formato da montanti fissi incollati al tavolato e da traverse inserite in sedi ricavate nei montanti stessi. Espressione usata per descrivere una tipologia di intervento di restauro dei dipinti su tavola. La sua funzione è conferire sostegno al supporto nel senso longitudinale e controllo nel senso ortogonale.
Loose tongue/ spline A long thin strip of wood to fit in mat­ching grooves in adjacent boards. It unites them in the same way as a tongue-and groove joint.
Linguetta riportata Elemento in legno inserito nelle scanalature praticate nei bordi di due tavole contigue, con la funzione di unirle. Unione fra due tavole, a dente e canale; il dente in questo caso è riportato.
Loose tongue
Mitre/ miter joint Joint formed by fitting together two pieces of boards or mouldings to form an angle with the joint bisec­ting the angle. The angle of the boards generally being 90°, each mitre or miter is cut off at an angle of 45°. Mitre joints may be flat joints or tenon-and-mortise joints, or provided with any kind of key or connector.
Ugnatura L’incastro a ugnatura unisce ad angolo retto le estremità di due elementi, tagliate obliquamente a formare un angolo di 45°. Questo incastro può essere realizzato a giunto vivo o a tenone e mortasa.
Mitre joint
Mortise A cavity cut in a piece of timber to receive a tenon or tongue projecting from ano­ther piece. A mortise differs from a groove in that it has sides.
Mortasa Intaglio praticato in un pezzo di legno per potervi inserire un elemento sporgente o tenone. Questo incastro, diritto o obliquo, può essere realizzato in vari modi, servendosi di uno o più tenoni.
Painting border/ fin Panels originally painted with their frame have at the slot opening in the frame an excess of accumulated preparation and paint. This border or fin therefore shows when the panel is taken out of the frame. A border remains at the edge of the panel where the natural wood is exposed.
Barba La stesura della preparazione a gesso e colla nelle tavole dipinte era continuativa, tra piano delle tavola ed elementi di incorniciatura. Veniva quindi a crearsi un leggero accumulo di preparazione e di pittura nel punto di giunzione tra piano e cornice. La barba diventa visibile quando la tavola viene separata dalla cornice.
Paring-axe A cooper's and carpen­ter's tool, a kind of axe, the cutting edge of which is oblique to the shaft. Used for paring cuts on timber to be united.
Ascia da bottaio Sorta di ascia utilizzata dal bottaio e dal carpentiere per preparare le assi da assemblare. Si tratta di una scure a tagliente diritto e dal manico piuttosto corto, con lama larga ed obliqua.
Paring-axe
Plain butt end joint This cannot be considered a joint unless glued, and even then will not provide any strength.
Giunto di testa semplice Simile al giunto a costa o a facce piane; si differenzia da questo per l’unione di testa che non offre un´adeguata struttura per la tenuta del collante.
Quarter-sawn Sawn in such a way that medullar rays of the wood are exposed length­wise.
Taglio di quarto (o radiale) Il taglio di quarto è corrisponde al taglio radiale in cui le tavole presentano le specchiature dei raggi parenchimatici. Questo taglio è meno soggetto ad imbarcarsi.
Riving knife Tool used by stave­-cleavers with a slightly curved blade on the back which is struck with a mallet to progressively separate the wood fibres. Regional French variations: coutre, départoir, fendoir, merlin.
Ascia da bottaio Arnese utilizzato nella fabbricazione delle botti, per tagliare le assi e ricavarne le doghe. Viene affondato nel legno battendone la lama con una mazza e sollecitando poco alla volta la separazione delle fibre del ceppo. (In alcune regioni della Francia è chiamato anche ‘coutre’, ‘fendoir’ e ‘merlin’). Attrezzo con tagliente nella parte inferiore, la cui lama è moderatamente curva nel senso verticale e orizzontale; il suo manico corto consente di usarla con una sola mano.
Riving knife
Scarf / scarfing/ scarf joint A lengthening joint in structural timbers that does not increase the cross-sectional area. It is made by notching and lapping the ends in such a manner that the two pieces appear as one.
Incastri di lunghezza, di punta o di testa Incastro di due elementi sin legno in senso longitudinale, mediante diversi tipi di unioni.
Shoulder A projection to give strength and support such as the projection at the root of a tenon in a haunched mortise-and-tenon joint.
Spalla Una sporgenza con funzione di sostegno o rinforzo, come per esempio la sporgenza alla base di un tenone in un incastro tenone-mortasa.
Stave Stave-cut boards are narrower at one end than at the other, like the staves of a wooden bucket.
Rastrematura Un’asse o una traversa di legno si dicono ‘rastremati’ quando sono tagliati in modo da avere un’estremità più stretta dell’altra. Nella lavorazione del mobile, dei portoni e dei supporti per la pittura, la rastrematura (o ‘smosso’), viene eseguita al margine dei lati dei pannelli o dei supporti; la si può trovare su una sola faccia del pannello o su entrambe.
Tenon The end of a piece of timber reduced in section to fit in a recess or cavity of the same size, termed a mortise.
Tenone Estremità intagliata e assottigliata di un pezzo, che si fa entrare nell’incavo (mortasa) praticato in un altro pezzo. Elemento a forma di parallelepipedo, generalmente realizzato nel senso della venatura, che si inserisce nella mortasa.
Through tenon A tenon that shows on the outside of the stile, the mortise having been cut through the rail.
Tenone passante Tenone che attraversa da una parte all’altra il montante in cui è incastrato.
Tongue A reduction of the thick­ness of a board by rebating opposite faces. The tongue fits into a matched groove in an adjacent board to streng­then the edge joint which is then termed a tongue-and-groove joint. It corresponds lengthwise to a tenon in a tenon-and-mortise end joint.
Linguetta Riduzione dello spessore di un’asse, ottenuta ribassandone le facce opposte. La linguetta, che è un tenone, si inserisce nella scanalatura (mortasa) della tavola contigua, formando così un incastro detto ‘a dente e canale’. Corrisponde in senso longitudinale a un tenone in un incastro ‘tenone-mortasa’. In antico questo elemento è stato impiegato nella costruzione dei tavolati dei supporti; era realizzato nel senso della venatura del legno ed era inserito in canali ricavati nello spessore delle assi o delle tavole. La sua funzione era quella di rafforzate la giunzione tra le parti, per questo era incollato.
Tongue
Tunnel Once wood has been attacked by woodworm, it is necessarily run through by numerous tunnels, but only after the wood has been made thinner are such tunnels to be seen. Holes on surfaces correspond to the outlets of such tunnels. There are always tunnels in worm-eaten woods, but we do not mention them unless they are exposed in the surface of the panel; this provides interesting evidence that the panel has either been divided in two or made thinner.
Galleria di tarli Un legno attaccato dai tarli è inevitabilmente percorso di gallerie, che però diventano visibili solo una volta che il legno è stato assottigliato. I buchi in superficie corrispondono alle uscite di tali gallerie. In un legno tarlato, pertanto, vi sono sempre delle gallerie; ne facciamo menzione, tuttavia, soltanto nel caso in cui esse siano visibili sulla superficie del pannello. È anzi interessante notare come questo elemento rappresenti la prova che il pannello è stato diviso in due o assottigliato. Le gallerie dei tarli si estendo in maggioranza nel senso della venatura del legno e lungo I bordi delle tavole.
Adze A carpenter's tool used for squa­ring logs, levelling horizontal surfaces, etc. It has a thin arched blade at right angles to the shaft, as compared with the axe which has the blade parallel to the shaft.
Azuela Tipo de hacha que tiene la hoja curvada o recta y el filo en sentido transversal al mango, usada por los carpinteros para tallar la madera o igualar su superficie.
Adze
Bar We make use of the word bar to indi­cate any piece of timber that is placed along the height of a panel, in opposition to the term traverse (cross-bar) used for pieces of timber which are placed along the breadth of a panel.
Larguero Pieza de madera que refuerza o arma un panel en sentido vertical; "travesaño" es la que desempeña la misma función en sentido horizontal.
Bevel Edge not cut at right angles on the faces, one side of the board forming with the adjacent sides angles greater or less respectively than a right angle.
Bisel Canto formado por un corte oblicuo.
Bevel (English)
Bevelled joint Joint uniting lengthwise two boards, the edges of which are bevelled to match with one another, thus forming a kind of inser­tion of an edge into an angular groove. Used now for wooden cofferdams.
Junta en zig-zag Junta que forman dos bordes biselados que encajan uno en otro.
Bevelled joint
Brace A member of a framed structure, cros­sing a space diagonally and able to resist tension or compression, imparting stiffness to the struc­ture.
Riostra Pieza colocada diagonalmente entre paralelas para asegurar la rigidez de una estructura.
Butt end End by which a piece of timber is joined with another.
Encuentro. Zona de unión de dos piezas de madera, generalmente por medio de un ensamble.
Chamfer A bevelled edge, but the bevel not reaching the opposite side, both angles formed by the chamfer with the adjacent sides of the piece of timber being accordingly greater than a right angle (see Bevel).
Chaflán Bisel practicado sobre una arista, que origina dos ángulos obtusos (véase Bisel).
Cleaver Kind of axe used to cleave hop poles, firewood, etc.
Coutre Nombre francés de un tipo de hacha de hoja curva y bifurcada en su extremo, que sirve para cortar al hilo, igualar o rebajar estacas o tejuelas.
Cleaver
Cross-bar see Bar
Travesaño véase Larguero
Cross-grain Grain not parallel with the axis of a piece of timber. Cross-grain painting, cross-grain cutting, etc., means painting, cutting, etc., made in the direction contrary to the grain of the wood.
A contrahilo Una pintura o una talla a contrahilo es la que se realiza sobre la madera cortada a testa, transversalmente a la dirección de las fibras.
Double dovetail key A small piece of hard wood acting as a key, with two dovetailed sections, used for end-to-end butt joints and for mitre joints.
Llave a cola de milano Pequeña pieza de madera dura en forma de doble cola de milano, que se utiliza como elemento de sujeción en juntas planas. También se conoce como cuña de mariposa.
Double dovetail key
Double halved (scarf joint) Kind of mortise-and-tenon joint where each piece of timber is provided with two tenons and two mortises, matched for the tenons of each piece of timber to enter into the mortises of the other. There are many variations.
Espiga cruzada Espiga que se deja en cada una de las dos piezas a ensamblar, a continuación de la mortaja que debe recibir la espiga de la pieza opuesta.
Dovetail Kind of tenon with slanting sides as a wedge reversed, mostly used for pieces of timber to be united at right angles to each other, but also end to end. The pins on one piece are fan-shaped like the tail of a pigeon and fit in sockets or eyes in the other piece. It is an interlocking joint. The French term translates literally as ‘swallow-tail’.
Cola de milano Espiga que se ensancha desde su base, mostrando el perfil de la cola de un milano. Ensamble a cola de milano es el que se obtiene encajando esta clase de espigas en entalles de la forma contraria; se emplea a menudo para unir piezas en ángulo recto.
Dowel A wood pin. Piece of hardwood of cir­cular, oval or polygonal section, often slightly conical, used in many types of joints to hold or strengthen two pieces of timber where they join.
Clavija Pieza pequeña de madera, alargada en el sentido de la fibra, de sección circular, oval o poligonal y perfil ligeramente cónico, que se emplea como elemento de unión o de refuerzo en distintos tipos de ensamble.
Draw-knife A cutting tool cran­ked at the ends for two handles. It is used for reducing the width of thin boards, chamfering, rounding edges, etc.
Bastrén Herramienta de corte provista de dos mangos, de la que se sirven los carreteros y los toneleros. Se usa para rebajar, aplanar o igualar las tablas.
Draw-knife
Edge The narrow surface of timber of rectan­gular section.
Canto Cada una de las dos caras longitudinales de una tabla que corresponden a su espesor.
Flat cradle As opposed to high cradling (see High cradle), flat cradling (parquetage bas or parquetage plat) results when reinforcing members are arranged with their broader face towards the panel.
Engatillado bajo o plano Es lo contrario del high cradling (véase Engatillado alto), es decir, un engatillado en el que los listones unidos directamente a la tabla lo están por su lado más ancho.
Flat sawn Sawn in such a way that medullar rays show as cross-sections.
Corte a testa Cortado de forma que los radios medulares de la madera se muestren en sección transversal.
Flipot Piece of wood used to repair a cracked joinery work by introducing it into the crack after it has been made to fit tightly.
Chuleta, Injerto. En una obra de ebanistería, pedazo de madera que se embute en una grieta para disimularla.
Flush end joint Joint formed along edges of boards laid flush alongside without any means of uniting them, except perhaps glue.
Junta viva La que se produce mediante la yuxtaposición de dos piezas encoladas canto con canto, sin ningún tipo de ensamble.
French scarf In the oblique scarf joint (enture en fausse coupe), the splicing includes two butt ends and an oblique plane of contact. The splicing for tension or French scarf includes two shifted planes of contact, the cut­ting of the timber being similar to the Thunderbolt as symbolised by the Romans in Jupiter's hand, hence the French name. There are three butting surfaces in a French scarf ­joint, and the middle one is mostly provided with a wooden key. This joint has to be bolted to fulfil its task of tension resistance.
Rayo de Júpiter Tipo de empalme que recibe ese nombre porque su perfil quebrado recuerda el símbolo del rayo; es como una unión machihembrada en bisel. Al igual que muchas uniones semejantes, requiere ser asegurado mediante clavijas, tornillos o cola para cumplir su función de resistencia a la tracción.
French scarf
Gable The triangular part of the end wall of a building, from the eaves to the ridge. Corresponds in Roman and Gothic architecture to the pedi­ment (fronton) of the classic architecture.
Gablete Frontón triangular, siempre mucho más alto que ancho, característico de la arquitectura gótica.
Gablet A small gable. A decoration shaped like a gable, used in Gothic ornamentation at the top of a recess for a statue or as a complement to ogival arcades.
Gablete Gablete gótico de pequeñas dimensiones que corona como elemento ornamental la hornacina de una estatua o remata un arco ojival.
Gouge Kind of cutting chisel, with a channelled blade, to cut concave or convex surfaces. Used by joiners, sculptors, blacksmiths and coppersmiths.
Gubia Especie de formón con el filo en forma de media caña para hacer cortes o acanaladuras en arco de círculo, que utilizan los ebanistas, escultores, herreros, caldereros, etc.
Halved joint/ halved crosslap joint Crosswise joint of two pieces of timber, by cutting out half of the thickness of each piece. Halving means removing half of the material from each piece in any joint so that both surfaces are flush.
Media madera El empalme a media madera se efectúa reduciendo a la mitad el grueso de cada una de las dos piezas en la zona del encuentro, de modo que al superponerse queden enrasadas.
Head-to-foot This refers to stave-cut boards which are placed alongside, but with the broader end of one next to the narrower end of the other, so that the total breadth of both is more or less equal at both ends.
Pies con cabeza Se dice cuando dos tablillas trapezoidales se yuxtaponen invertidas, colocando el extremo ancho de una junto al estrecho de la otra.
High cradle Parquetage (cradle) is used for a system of barres (bars) and traverses (cross-bars) to support the panel. It is said to be high when members are arranged with their narrow face along the panel and their broad face perpendicular to it. This gives more rigidity to the panel and diminishes the contact surface.
Engatillado alto El parquetage, llamado en español engatillado, es un sistema empleado para corregir alabeamientos y grietas en las tablas pintadas. Consiste en aplicar sobre el reverso, para mantenerlo plano, una serie de listones verticales y sobre éstos otros listones horizontales, formando un entramado. En el parquetage haut o engatillado alto los listones unidos a la tabla lo están por su canto o lado más estrecho, lo que da mayor rigidez al sistema y reduce la superficie de contacto.
Loose tongue/ spline A long thin strip of wood to fit in mat­ching grooves in adjacent boards. It unites them in the same way as a tongue-and groove joint.
Falsa lengüeta, Falsa espiga Listón de madera suelto que se encaja en sendas ranuras abiertas en los cantos de dos tablas para unirlas.
Loose tongue
Mitre/ miter joint Joint formed by fitting together two pieces of boards or mouldings to form an angle with the joint bisec­ting the angle. The angle of the boards generally being 90°, each mitre or miter is cut off at an angle of 45°. Mitre joints may be flat joints or tenon-and-mortise joints, or provided with any kind of key or connector.
Inglete Unión entre piezas de madera que forman un ángulo, cortando cada testa en ángulo de 45º si se quiere que la unión forme un ángulo recto, como es el caso más frecuente; se llama también inglete al corte practicado en las piezas y a su encuentro. La unión a inglete puede ser una junta plana o un ensamble a caja y espiga o de otro tipo.
Mitre joint
Mortise A cavity cut in a piece of timber to receive a tenon or tongue projecting from ano­ther piece. A mortise differs from a groove in that it has sides.
Mortaja o caja Entalle abierto en una pieza de madera para recibir el saliente (o espiga) de otra. El ensamble de caja y espiga puede ser recto u oblicuo, y estar formado por una espiga o varias.
Painting border/ fin Panels originally painted with their frame have at the slot opening in the frame an excess of accumulated preparation and paint. This border or fin therefore shows when the panel is taken out of the frame. A border remains at the edge of the panel where the natural wood is exposed.
Rebaba de pintura Las tablas que fueron pintadas dentro de su marco presentan, en la juntura entre tabla y marco, un sobrante acumulado de preparación y pintura. La rebaba así formada aparece cuando se separa el marco de la tabla, dejando a la vista en los bordes la madera natural.
Paring-axe A cooper's and carpen­ter's tool, a kind of axe, the cutting edge of which is oblique to the shaft. Used for paring cuts on timber to be united.
Dolobre Herramienta de tonelero y carpintero, a modo de hacha de hoja ancha y mango corto, con el filo recto y oblicuo respecto al mango. Se emplea para preparar las piezas que se han de ensamblar.
Paring-axe
Plain butt end joint This cannot be considered a joint unless glued, and even then will not provide any strength.
Junta a tope No es propiamente una unión a menos que vaya encolada, y ni siquiera en ese caso posee una mínima resistencia.
Quarter-sawn Sawn in such a way that medullar rays of the wood are exposed length­wise.
Corte al hilo Cortado (Corte) de forma que los radios medulares de la madera se muestren a lo largo.
Riving knife Tool used by stave­-cleavers with a slightly curved blade on the back which is struck with a mallet to progressively separate the wood fibres. Regional French variations: coutre, départoir, fendoir, merlin.
Départoir Nombre francés del hacha utilizada para hacer tejuelas partiendo un trozo de madera al hilo. Su cuchilla, ligeramente curva, se clava en la madera a golpes de mazo, separando las fibras progresivamente. En distintas regiones de Francia el départoir se llama coutre, fendoir o merlin.
Riving knife
Scarf / scarfing/ scarf joint A lengthening joint in structural timbers that does not increase the cross-sectional area. It is made by notching and lapping the ends in such a manner that the two pieces appear as one.
Empalme Unión de dos piezas de madera por sus testas para obtener una pieza más larga. Los empalmes se emplean sobre todo en la construcción, y se efectúan mediante distintos tipos de entalladuras o ensambles.
Shoulder A projection to give strength and support such as the projection at the root of a tenon in a haunched mortise-and-tenon joint.
Espaldón Saliente que da apoyo y resistencia en la unión de dos piezas, por ejemplo en el canto de una tabla rebajada para una junta a media madera o en la base de una espiga.
Stave Stave-cut boards are narrower at one end than at the other, like the staves of a wooden bucket.
En forma de huso Se aplica a los listones o tablillas que tienen un extremo más estrecho que el otro, por ejemplo los que forman un balde de madera.
Tenon The end of a piece of timber reduced in section to fit in a recess or cavity of the same size, termed a mortise.
Espiga Extremo disminuido en la testa de una pieza de madera para que encaje en el hueco abierto en otra, llamado caja o mortaja. En español se llama también espigas a las clavijas.
Through tenon A tenon that shows on the outside of the stile, the mortise having been cut through the rail.
Espiga pasante Espiga que atraviesa completamente la pieza en la que se introduce.
Tongue A reduction of the thick­ness of a board by rebating opposite faces. The tongue fits into a matched groove in an adjacent board to streng­then the edge joint which is then termed a tongue-and-groove joint. It corresponds lengthwise to a tenon in a tenon-and-mortise end joint.
Lengüeta (o macho). En el ensamble machihembrado, también llamado de ranura y lengüeta, es la espiga seguida que encaja en la correspondiente ranura (o hembra) continua de la otra pieza.
Tongue
Tunnel Once wood has been attacked by woodworm, it is necessarily run through by numerous tunnels, but only after the wood has been made thinner are such tunnels to be seen. Holes on surfaces correspond to the outlets of such tunnels. There are always tunnels in worm-eaten woods, but we do not mention them unless they are exposed in the surface of the panel; this provides interesting evidence that the panel has either been divided in two or made thinner.
Galería de xilófagos Toda madera atacada por insectos xilófagos está atravesada por galerías, pero éstas no son visibles a menos que la madera haya sido adelgazada. Los agujeros superficiales corresponden a puntos de salida. Sólo se habla de galerías en la madera carcomida cuando quedan al descubierto en la superficie del panel; es interesante observar que entonces constituyen una prueba de que el panel ha sido dividido en dos o rebajado de cualquier otra manera.